List of Words Series 2

101. oppress
Meaning: come down on or keep down by unjust use of one’s authority
Use: Those who managed to survive were later oppressed by Poland’s post-war communist authorities.

102. contend
Meaning: compete for something
Use: But eight men, however bold and stout-hearted, could not long contend with an enemy at least four times their number.Strang, Herbert

103. stake
Meaning: a strong wooden or metal post driven into the ground
Use: His remains were buried in Cannon Street, and a stake was driven through the body.Andrews, William

104. toil
Meaning: work hard
Use: He toiled in the sweat of his brow, tilling the stubborn ground, taking out stones, building fences.Adler, Felix

105. perish
Meaning: pass from physical life
Use: Simon Wiesenthal’s parents are long since deceased, with his father dying in World War I and his mother perishing in the Holocaust.

106. disposition
Meaning: your usual mood
Use: Melancholia — the state of mind — can hide behind seemingly sunny dispositions.Seattle Times (Dec 28, 2011)

107. rail
Meaning: complain bitterly
Use: Mr. Gray railed against lengthy stage directions, saying he crossed them out in scripts before he would begin rehearsals with his actors.New York Times (Feb 7, 2012)

108. cardinal
Meaning: one of a group of prominent bishops in the Sacred College
Use: Each time he names cardinals he puts his stamp on Roman Catholicism’s future by choosing men who share his views.Chicago Tribune (Feb 18, 2012)

109. boast
Meaning: talk about oneself with excessive pride or self-regard
Use: Mr. Estes was also well connected politically, boasting that the president of the United States took his calls.New York Times (Dec 10, 2011)

110. advocate
Meaning: a person who pleads for a person, cause, or idea
Use: Well, safety advocates, consumers and the government dragged the automobile industry toward including seat belts, air bags, more visible taillights and other safety features.New York Times (Feb 19, 2012)

111. bestow
Meaning: present
Use: He bestowed public buildings and river improvements in return for votes.Gilbert, Clinton W. (Clinton Wallace)

112. allege
Meaning: report or maintain
Use: It is being fired into enclosed areas and homes, the human rights group alleges.

113. notwithstanding
Meaning: despite anything to the contrary
Use: He seems to have taken things easily enough, notwithstanding the sorrow and suffering that surrounded him on every side.Adams, W. H. Davenport (William Henry Davenport)

114. lofty
Meaning: of imposing height; especially standing out above others
Use: He found himself in an enormous hall with a lofty ceiling.Blasco Ib??ez, Vicente

115. multitude
Meaning: a large indefinite number
Use: Department store chains in general have been strained in recent years as a ” multitude” of alternatives has emerged, all competing for customers.Chicago Tribune (Dec 28, 2011)

116. steep
Meaning: having a sharp inclination
Use: It was narrow and very steep, and had precipices in all parts, so that they could not mount upward except one at a time.Various

117. heed
Meaning: pay close attention to
Use: But Cain was already too far gone to heed the warning voice.Adler, Felix

118. modest
Meaning: not large but sufficient in size or amount
Use: A healthy person living in an unfashionable city with no student loans to pay off can get by on a fairly modest income.Slate (Feb 17, 2012)

119. partial
Meaning: being or affecting only a segment
Use: Generalizations of this sweeping order are apt to contain only partial truth.Clarke, Helen Archibald

120. apt
Meaning: naturally disposed toward
Use: Another reason to display beds at an electronics show: consumers are apt to use high-tech devices while tucked in.New York Times (Jan 9, 2012)

121. esteem
Meaning: the condition of being honored
Use: Despite being held in the highest esteem by his fellow poets, Redgrove never quite achieved the critical reception or readership he deserved.

122. credible
Meaning: appearing to merit belief or acceptance
Use: Mike Mullen, then chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, has acknowledged receiving the memo but said he ignored it as not credible.New York Times (Dec 19, 2011)

123. provoke
Meaning: provide the needed stimulus for
Use: It provoked a bigger reaction than we could ever have anticipated.

124. tread
Meaning: a step in walking or running
Use: The farmer went down, his clumsy boots making no sound on the uncarpeted stairway, so careful was his tread.Woolson, Constance Fenimore

125. ascertain
Meaning: learn or discover with confidence
Use: Health care providers and manufacturers can ascertain alternative treatment more effectively by tackling predicted drug shortage incidences early in the process.Forbes (Feb 13, 2012)

126. fare
Meaning: proceed, get along, or succeed
Use: A recent study breaks down how graduates with various college degrees are faring in today’s difficult job market.Washington Post (Feb 17, 2012)

127. cede
Meaning: relinquish possession or control over
Use: Some militia chiefs say they will only cede command of their fighters once an organized military and security apparatus is in place.

128. perpetual
Meaning: continuing forever or indefinitely
Use: The river is a perpetual enjoyment, always something going on.Waddington, Mary King

129. decree
Meaning: a legally binding command or decision
Use: While the decree takes effect immediately, it requires Parliament’s approval within 60 days to remain in force.

130. contrive
Meaning: make or work out a plan for; devise
Use: The wily Roc, never taken much by surprise, contrived to escape, but old Tributor and his men were all captured.Thornbury, Walter

131. derived
Meaning: formed or developed from something else; not original
Use: Modern kale, cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, and kohlrabi are all members of the same species, derived from a single prehistoric plant variety.Slate (Feb 21, 2012)

132. elaborate
Meaning: marked by complexity and richness of detail
Use: But the tobacco industry and owners of other convenience stores say tribal cigarette manufacturing is just an elaborate form of tax evasion.New York Times (Feb 22, 2012)

133. substantial
Meaning: real; having a material or factual existence
Use: Defense lawyers said the large number of forensic tests which had been carried out had failed to find any substantial evidence linked to the accused.

134. frontier
Meaning: a wilderness at the edge of a settled area of a country
Use: Adding to the precarious security situation, tribesmen kidnapped 18 Egyptian border guards along the frontier with Israel in Sinai Peninsula.New York Times (Feb 9, 2012)

135. facile
Meaning: arrived at without due care or effort; lacking depth
Use: As one teacher remarks about a troubled student, “There is no facile solution.”New York Times (Oct 11, 2011)

136. cite
Meaning: make reference to
Use: The Federal Reserve has pledged low interest rates until late 2014, citing in part the weakness of the job market.

137. warrant
Meaning: show to be reasonable or provide adequate ground for
Use: In the United Kingdom and Europe the devices are not used unless the need is warranted by the patient’s medical condition.

138. sob
Meaning: weep convulsively
Use: He cried and trembled, sobbing, while they spoke, like the child he was.Weyman, Stanley J.

139. rider
Meaning: a traveler who actively sits and travels on an animal
Use: In horseback riding, a rider will give commands by squeezing or lengthening the reins and altering the position of his legs.

140. dense
Meaning: permitting little if any light to pass through
Use: Dense black smoke rose in the distance as demonstrators burned tires in Shiite villages.

141. afflict
Meaning: cause physical pain or suffering in
Use: Melanoma globally afflicts nearly 160,000 new people each year.

142. flourish
Meaning: grow vigorously
Use: His business had been all along steadily flourishing, his patrons had been of high social position, some most illustrious, others actually royal.Petherick, Horace William

143. ordain
Meaning: invest with ministerial or priestly authority
Use: One of the present bishops was consecrated when quite a young boy, and deacons are often ordained at sixteen, and even much earlier.Bird, Isabella L. (Isabella Lucy)

144. pious
Meaning: having or showing or expressing reverence for a deity
Use: Mother, you see, is a very pious woman, and she attributes it all to Providence, saying that it was the Divine interference in her behalf.Various

145. vex
Meaning: disturb, especially by minor irritations
Use: There are vexing problems slowing the growth and the practical implementation of big data technologies.Forbes (Oct 21, 2011)

146. gravity
Meaning: the force of attraction between all masses in the universe
Use: Once captured, the combined object will have a new center of gravity and may be spinning in an uncontrolled way.

147. suspended
Meaning: supported or kept from sinking or falling by buoyancy
Use: Frustrating enough at ground level, but can you imagine the agony about a stranded, ever-soggier Oreo being suspended 11 feet above the ground?Washington Post (Feb 21, 2012)

148. conspicuous
Meaning: obvious to the eye or mind
Use: Its bright scarlet fruits are conspicuous in late autumn.Anonymous

149. retort
Meaning: a quick reply to a question or remark
Use: Having put him in ill humour with this retort, she fled away rejoicing.Coster, Charles Th?odore Henri de

150. jet
Meaning: an airplane powered by gas turbines
Use: Typhoon fighter jets, helicopters, two warships and bomb disposal experts will also be on duty to guard against security threats.Seattle Times (Feb 20, 2012)

151. bolt
Meaning: run away
Use: The blare of bugles was heard, and a few seconds afterwards Jackson, still facing the enemy, shouted: “By Jupiter, they’re bolting, sir.”Strang, Herbert

152. assent
Meaning: agree or express agreement
Use: His two companions readily assented, and the promise was mutually given and received.Keightley, Thomas

153. purse
Meaning: a sum spoken of as the contents of a money container
Use: She watched over her husband, kept his accounts, held the family purse, managed all his affairs. Shorter, Clement K.

154. plus
Meaning: the arithmetic operation of summing
Use: The survey’s margin of error was plus or minus four percentage points.

155. sanction
Meaning: give authority or permission to
Use: The Securities and Exchange Commission said last year it had sanctioned 39 senior officers for conduct related to the housing market meltdown.

156. proceeding
Meaning: a sequence of steps by which legal judgments are invoked
Use: Chu attended the special court-martial proceeding on Monday in Hawaii, Hill said.

157. exalt
Meaning: praise, glorify, or honor
Use: Some exalt themselves by anonymously posting their own laudatory reviews.New York Times (Jan 26, 2012)

158. siege
Meaning: an action of an armed force that surrounds a fortified place
Use: Rebellion broke out, and finally the aged Caliph, after enduring a siege of several weeks, was murdered in his own house.Nicholson, Reynold

159. malice
Meaning: the desire to see others suffer
Use: He viewed the moths with malice, their fluttering wings fanning his resentment.Lyman, Olin L.

160. extravagant
Meaning: recklessly wasteful
Use: Advisers say new millionaires are prone to mistakes, like making extravagant purchases or risky deals with friends.

161. wax
Meaning: increase in phase
Use: Carols had existed for centuries, though their popularity waxed and waned as different governments and religious movements periodically declared them sinful.

162. throng
Meaning: press tightly together or cram
Use: Deafening cheers rent the air as he landed; hundreds thronged around him to clasp his hand. Strang, Herbert

163. venerate
Meaning: regard with feelings of respect and reverence
Use: He venerated me like a being descended from an upper world. Blasco Ibez, Vicente

164. assail
Meaning: attack someone physically or emotionally
Use: His campaign even issued a press release assailing other rivals for, in Mr. Paul’s view, taking Mr. Romney’s quote about firing people out of context. New York Times (Feb 16, 2012)

165. sublime
Meaning: of high moral or intellectual value
Use: He was uneven, disproportioned, saying ordinary things on great occasions, and now and then, without the slightest provocation, uttering the sublimest and most beautiful thoughts.Ingersoll, Robert Green

166. exploit
Meaning: draw from; make good use of
Use: As humans increasingly exploit the deep seas for fish, oil and mining, understanding how species are dispersed is crucial, Copley said.Scientific American (Jan 3, 2012)

167. exertion
Meaning: use of physical or mental energy; hard work
Use: One day overcome by exertion, she fainted in the street. Ingersoll, Robert Green

168. kindle
Meaning: catch fire
Use: Then a match was kindled and fire applied.Warner, Susan

169. endow
Meaning: furnish with a capital fund
Use: The grammar school here, founded in 1533, is liberally endowed, with scholarships and exhibitions.Various

170. imposed
Meaning: set forth authoritatively as obligatory
Use: The Arab League has already suspended Syria and imposed economic sanctions.

171. humiliate
Meaning: cause to feel shame
Use: The letter claims pensioners are too often patronised, humiliated, denied privacy or even medical treatment.

172. suffrage
Meaning: a legal right to vote
Use: There has been a great deal said in this country of late in regard to giving the right of suffrage to women. Ingersoll, Robert Green

173. ensue
Meaning: take place or happen afterward or as a result
Use: An uproar ensued months after the approval, when opponents realized the online gambling measure had been slipped in. New York Times (Feb 16, 2012)

174. brook
Meaning: a natural stream of water smaller than a river
Use: He walked across the little bridge over the brook and at once his mood changed. Mason, A. E. W. (Alfred Edward Woodley)

175. gale
Meaning: a strong wind moving 34–40 knots
Use: The gale was accompanied, as usual, by incessant rain and thick weather, and a heavy confused sea kept our decks always flooded. Fitzroy, Robert

176. muse
Meaning: reflect deeply on a subject
Use: Musing about the Big Picture may be a lot more gratifying than focusing on the details of the specific policies that aren’t working.

177. satire
Meaning: witty language used to convey insults or scorn
Use: There’s plenty of humor on Russian television, though not much political satire; Mr. Putin put a stop to that long ago. New York Times (Feb 13, 2012)

178. intrigue
Meaning: cause to be interested or curious
Use: Designing and building models that intrigue and educate without overwhelming has been challenging. Science Magazine (Nov 24, 2011)

179. indication
Meaning: something that serves to suggest
Use: Authorities said an autopsy found no indications of foul play or obvious signs of trauma on Houston. Seattle Times (Feb 15, 2012)

180. dispatch
Meaning: send away towards a designated goal
Use: More than one assassin was dispatched by the Turkish authorities to murder Napoleon. Various

181. cower
Meaning: crouch or curl up
Use: The knaves lowered their weapons and shrank back cowering before him. Weyman, Stanley J.

182. wont
Meaning: an established custom
Use: He made his customary slick feeds to open teammates, but as is their wont, the Nets struggled at times to convert points on his passes. New York Times (Feb 20, 2012)

183. tract
Meaning: a system of body parts that serves some specialized purpose
Use: When probiotics flourish in the digestive tract, nutrients are better absorbed and bad bugs are held at bay, research suggests. Seattle Times (Jan 10, 2012)

184. canon
Meaning: a collection of books accepted as holy scripture
Use: For me, all novels of any consequence are literary, and they take their place, high and low, in the canon of English literature.

185. impel
Meaning: cause to move forward with force
Use: Some power beyond his comprehension was impelling him toward the neighboring city. Blasco Ibez, Vicente

186. latitude
Meaning: freedom from normal restraints in conduct
Use: Great employees often get more latitude to bring up controversial subjects in a group setting because their performance allows greater freedom.

187. vacate
Meaning: leave behind empty; move out of
Use: Their number diminished sharply after Villaraigosa announced last week that he wanted protesters to vacate the grounds by Monday or be forcibly removed. Chicago Tribune (Nov 30, 2011)

188. undertaking
Meaning: any piece of work that is attempted
Use: “Let my epitaph be, Here lies Joseph, who was unsuccessful in all his undertakings.” Marvin, Frederic Rowland

189. slay
Meaning: kill intentionally and with premeditation
Use: “It were shame,” said Lancelot, “for an armed to slay an unarmed man.” Unknown

190. predecessor
Meaning: one who goes before you in time
Use: Heller fills in the blanks about Taft, overshadowed by colorful predecessor Teddy Roosevelt. Seattle Times (Feb 22, 2012)

191. delicacy
Meaning: the quality of being exquisitely fine in appearance
Use: This refinement appears in his works, which are full of artistic grace and dainty delicacy. Drake, Samuel Adams

192. forsake
Meaning: leave someone who needs or counts on you; leave in the lurch
Use: “I’m surprised,” said Philip, cautiously opening fire, “that you were ever allowed to forsake your native land.” Hay, Ian

193. beseech
Meaning: ask for or request earnestly
Use: Utterly distraught, he ran up and down the bank, hunting for his clothes, calling, crying out, imploring, beseeching help from somewhere. Frank, Ulrich

194. philosophical
Meaning: relating to the investigation of existence and knowledge
Use: His arguments, like Einstein’s, were qualitative, verging on highly philosophical. Scientific American (Jan 30, 2012)

195. grove
Meaning: a small growth of trees without underbrush
Use: Soon after we came to Pasadena, father bought an orange grove of twenty-five acres. Chamberlain, James Franklin

196. frustrate
Meaning: hinder or prevent, as an effort, plan, or desire
Use: Frustrated after two years of missed budget targets, finance chiefs demanded Greek officials put their verbal commitments into law.

197. illustrious
Meaning: widely known and esteemed
Use: She will be joining an illustrious list of recipients that include Winston Churchill, Nelson Mandela, Pope John Paul II and Princess Diana.

198. device
Meaning: an instrumentality invented for a particular purpose
Use: You’ve probably also noticed that the telephone and computer are no longer the only devices on your employees’ desks. Forbes (Feb 26, 2012)

199. pomp
Meaning: cheap or pretentious or vain display
Use: Throughout U.S. history, Americans have been fascinated by royal pomp — even on a movie screen.

200. entreat
Meaning: ask for or request earnestly
Use: “Let me go now, please,” she entreated, her eyes unable to meet his any longer. Hope, Anthony

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